The do’s, don’ts, maybes, and I-don’t-knows of cultural appropriation.

Cultural appropriation is a seriously hot-button topic.  It ranges from the aggressively entitled stance of, “I can do whatever I want!” to the perpetually angry approach of “everything is cultural appropriation!”.  Of course, the former is a much larger portion of the debate, and the latter is almost always a huge straw-man argument that few people actually make, but serves to bolster the idea that anyone who takes issue with cultural appropriation is a hysterical hater.  That might not be clear when you first start looking into the issue, however.

I bring this topic up precisely because it does scare and confuse and inflame.  Except I want to avoid all that negative stuff as best I can.  I won’t be completely successful, but that is because there are no set-in-stone rules here.  There is no ‘common’ sense, because our viewpoints on the subject can and will diverge radically and we lack a common understanding.

It shouldn’t need stating that I am not presenting myself as an authority on this, but I’ve found that I do need to include this disclaimer.  Much like in the post on what to call us, I present you with my thoughts on the matter, recognising that there are legitimate arguments for and against my various positions.  In short, nitôtêmitik, this issue isn’t easy for anyone.  Not for me, not for you.  If easy answers is what you seek, I shall leave you disappointed.  Promise.

Because so much has been said on this topic about colonialism and racism and marginalisation and so forth, I wanted to add in a few points from a related but slightly different perspective than I often see discussed.  To cut down on verbiage (too late), consider this entire post an ‘add-on’ to the larger discussion, rather than a complete encapsulation of it.

First, some resources

A lot has been said on this issue, and although I do a lot of in-my-head work, I also read what other people have to say about these things.  You should too.

You don’t have to read it all right this second, but I want you to have a few more resources to access if this topic interests you. I tend to focus on cultural appropriation as it relates to native peoples, though this issue is hardly limited to us.

The blog Native Appropriations is a great place to do some reading.  The post “But Why Can’t I wear a Hipster Headdress?” deals explicitly with the kinds of things you’ll see in the Hall of Shame.

There is also an absolutely fantastic, clear, and accessible guide now available from Simon Fraser University as part of their Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage Project (2015) called “Think Before You Appropriate: things to know and questions to ask in order to avoid misappropriating Indigenous cultural heritage“. It is honestly one of the best resources I have ever seen, so please give it a gander!

So a guy walks into a bar and asks…

What does the Victoria Cross, the Order of Canada, a framed Bachelor’s degree, the Giller Prize and an eagle feather all have in common?

There is no punchline actually. Each one of these things is a symbol, a visual recognition of a certain kind of achievement.  I’m sure you can think of many more of these symbols of military, humanitarian, academic, literary or what-have-you achievement.

The symbol is important, but only because of what it represents.  Without that deeper meaning, the Victoria Cross is gaudy jewellery, a Bachelor Degree is just a piece of paper, the Giller Prize is abstract art and an eagle feather is just ornamentation.

These symbols are restricted to those who have fulfilled certain criteria.  Yes, there are people out there who would mock the symbols and wear representations of them for kicks.  They’d get some odd looks though…I mean, how ironic can you claim to be, lugging around a fake Giller Prize?

There are also people who would lie about their achievements and pretend to have earned what the symbols represent.  You can imagine the reaction to someone pretending they’d earned the Victoria Cross…or someone claiming they have a degree in medicine when they do not.  Sometimes these kinds of claims are met with criminal sanction, so seriously do we take this sort of thing.

Restricted versus unrestricted

So there are a category of symbols in Canadian culture which are restricted within that culture.  Not everyone can use those restricted symbols.  There are rules about how you have to earn them, who can fashion the symbols themselves for you, who can present you with these symbols, and even sometimes what you can do with the symbols.  And always behind that material, physical symbol, is the oft-times intangible ‘thing you achieved’ that is linked to the symbol itself.  Obviously, other cultures also have restricted symbols linked to deeper, less obviously visible achievements.

Then there are symbols in Canadian culture which are not restricted to those who have achieved specific things.  Every Canadian is entitled to use the Canadian flag for example, and the meaning behind the use of that flag will vary depending on what a person individually wishes to symbolise.  A connection to the country?  A call for unity?  A protest against some action or policy?  Questionable fashion?

The meaning varies though the symbol stays the same, and we can (and do) alter that meaning with how we use the symbol.  We express different ideas with how we use the symbol, and we do not generally punish people for doing what they want with that symbol.

If someone unfamiliar with Canadian culture were to decorate herself with a string of fake Victoria Crosses, the reaction would be different than if the same person draped a Canadian flag over her non-Canadian shoulders.

In the case of the Victoria Cross, there is a possibility that the person wants to make a statement about what the Victoria Cross represents.  That would require understanding what the medal represents of course. Simply choosing it because it ‘looks nice’ and wearing it out to a party, does not a statement make.

Since the Canadian flag does not have such a clear cut meaning, there is not as much need to ‘get what it means’.  Its meaning can vary just as much outside of Canadian culture as within it.  Canadians might be offended with how someone outside the culture uses the flag…but they can also just as likely be offended by how someone within the culture uses it.

Cheapen the symbol, cheapen the achievement

In case it wasn’t extremely clear, eagle feathers are restricted symbols in the many indigenous cultures found throughout Canada and the US.  They represent various achievements made by the person who is presented with the feather.  Being presented with a feather is a great honour.  Many indigenous people will receive only one in their life-time, or perhaps never have that opportunity.

Because of the significance of the eagle feather, very few native people would display feathers they haven’t earned.  It would be like wearing that Victoria Cross I keep mentioning.  Someone outside the culture might not realise what the symbol means and perhaps would not call that person out in disgust for wearing it…but those from within the culture probably would.  It would be shameful.

It also cheapens the symbols earned by others.  Oh, those who earned the symbol would still know what they did, and that would never go away, but part of the power of a symbol is what it says to others.  These kinds of symbols are not for our own, personal recognition of our achievements alone.  They say, “here is a visual representation of the honour bestowed upon this person for their achievement”.  When everyone is running around with a copy of that symbol, then it is easy to forget that some people have to earn it and that it means something.  In fact…when many people run around with copies of restricted symbols, there may never be widespread understanding that the symbol ever meant anything.

And that is exactly where we are at with so many symbols from cultures other than our own.  No understanding of all what they mean, and if they are restricted or not, and why.

And hipsters?  In most of our nations, women do not wear feather headdresses.  Ever.  Stop it.

How do I know what’s restricted and what isn’t?


Ha, okay, of course I have more to say on the subject.  But it really can be as simple as asking sometimes, or even just doing a little research on the ye olde interwebs.

I find nothing wrong with someone wearing beaded Métis moccasins, for example.  Moccasins are not restricted in my culture.  They are often beautiful works of art, but they are not symbols of achievement beyond the amazing work put into them by the artisan.

I would not be okay with someone wearing a Métis sash if they are not Métis, however.  The sash has become a symbol of identity and achievement. Perhaps it was not always that way, because in the past it was a very utilitarian thing used to carry all sorts of things (including infants), or tie your coat together, or what have you.  But it is a powerful symbol now, and sometimes presented to Métis in the same way the eagle feather is presented.

Stop rolling your eyes at the term ‘sacred’ and think ‘important’ instead

Before I go on, I want to discuss something.  I do not care if you are religious, spiritual, or atheist.  These are choices you make, and I respect them.  However, because of the turbulent history of religion in western settler philosophy (and in many other parts of the world, from whence Canadians come), the translation of terms from our languages into the word ‘sacred’ can sometimes cause trouble.  Let’s talk about that for a second.

I feel that when other cultures discuss ‘sacred’ things, some people feel obligated to reject or elevate those things because of how they feel about their own religious traditions, or their atheism.  The issue gets confused as being about ‘religion’, when that is not necessarily what is going on.

Usually when we say ‘sacred’, there are more complex terms in our own language that apply…all of which basically mean to impart that the thing in question is ‘important and meaningful in a specific way’.  When you see the term ‘sacred’, please remember that.

Adapting to the interest

The Maori have sacred tattoos called tā moko. As I note above, this is not just some religious mumbo-jumbo with no further meaning.  The tattoos are specific symbolic representations of relationships, often kinship relationships.  In addition, they no doubt have all sorts of meanings I don’t have a clue about.  The point is, they aren’t just pretty designs.  They are designs with restricted, important meaning.

But they are nice.  And humans like nice things and want them for themselves.  So when non-Maori started copying these tattoos, a decision was made to promote kirituhi.  These are designs similar to tā-moko, but without the specific important meanings.  The kirituhi are not restricted, and are specifically designed to accommodate interest in the style of tattoo, without violating the meaning of the tā-moko.

More importantly, the decision to create a non-sacred version of the tattoos was made within the culture.  It is very likely that not every Maori person agreed this should be done at all, but you will never have complete agreement in any community.

Legitimate access

I would be uncomfortable wearing a sari.  For one thing, I have no idea how to put one on and would end up looking terrible…

But they are truly beautiful, aren’t they?  Amazing fabrics I can drool over all day.  Yet my discomfort is not really about how to wear them, nor is it based on the sari being a restricted form of dress, because as far as I know it is not.

I would feel uncomfortable because I know very little about the cultures from whence the sari comes.  I have not attended an Indian wedding, or other occasions where wearing a sari makes sense.  I do not believe I would be disrespecting Indian cultures by wearing a sari (unless I chose the very unfortunate day of Halloween to put it on as a ‘costume’ in which case, please feel free to slap me).  Nonetheless, my lack of any real connection to Indian cultures makes the entire thing awkward.

Other people have experiences with and within the culture that mean they can wear the sari and not feel strange.  I think that some people from outside a culture can have legitimate access to these things, without it being cultural appropriation.

But it is a minefield, because thoughtless cultural appropriation of meaningful symbols is still very much the status quo in settler cultures.  Thus it is still more reasonable to assume someone has little real understanding of the culture from the symbol originates from, than to assume they have a meaningful connection to that culture.  This can be very frustrating for people who have learned a lot about another culture, and who are even integrated into it.  But until things change, and thoughtless (and even mean-spirited) appropriation is a fringe behaviour, this is something you may have to live with if you do not come from the culture you so admire.

That there are examples of people with legitimate access to the cultures of others, does not mean you personally are not engaged in cultural appropriation if you do the same as they do.

If you admire a culture, learn about it

It does not take long to find out that certain modes of so-called ‘geisha’ dress are restricted in Japanese culture for example.  The common ‘geisha costume‘ attempts to imitate the maiko.

The bastardisation of geisha culture is not a happy history, and these abuses do not mean that the symbolism has lost meaning within Japanese culture even if some Japanese play into the stereotypes.  To put it another way, just because many people before you have ignored the symbolism and importance of geisha styles of dress, does not mean it is okay for you to do so. We’re trying to become better people aren’t we? There are many other beautiful, unrestricted Japanese styles that you can access an integrate into your own personal style.  Please don’t claim  you are honouring someone else’s tradition or culture when you fail to learn even this much about it.

Combating misinformation

Recently on tumblr, a platform I am still getting to know, there was a concerted effort made by aboriginal people to take back certain categories which were seen as misrepresenting indigenous culture.

On January7, the Native/First Nations Tumblr community came together as a unified force and took back our tags: #Native American, #NDN, and the ridiculous #Indian Hat.

Prior to that day, and most likely going back to the dawn of Tumblr, the #Native American tag had been one which none of the native/first nations people could go to and not cringe and get pissed looking through.

Tumblr is a vast blogging site that consists of nearly 40 million blogs and over 15 billion posts. Anyone can post whatever they like to Tumblr, although most posts tend to be images. And bloggers can tag these posts by subject matter, thus enabling other users to browse all posts on Tumblr by tag.

For many Natives, it was a very frustrating experience to click on tags such as #Native American and find the material to be mostly very UN-Native. The tags were filled primarily with images of non-native hipsters in various stages of being clothed and soberness wearing headdresses, skewed ideas of natives, dream catchers, that damned two wolves story, and other racist stereotypical imagery of Native Americans and First Nations peoples. The tag that ought to belong to us, and that ought to help us find each other, was being used by others, slapped insensitively onto images and ideas we actively dislike.

The emergence of social media platforms like tumblr, Facebook, twitter and yes, blogs, has created amazing possibilities for aboriginal people to combat centuries-old stereotypes and misconceptions.  However, we are up against the sheer volume of those stereotypes and sometimes it can feel like a losing battle.

But actions like that described above are not just a way of lashing out at people engaged in cultural appropriation.  There is a real desire to get accurate information out there, for natives and non-natives alike to access.

Many aboriginal people have been disconnected from their own cultures because of Residential Schools, the 60’s Scoop, and continuing ‘fostering-out’ into non-native families.  When these people want to learn more about their own culture, they have to wade through so many inaccuracies that it can feel impossible at times to reconnect. Non-natives with a real interest in aboriginal cultures face this as well.

For example, when artwork is mistakenly represented as Dene, Ojibway AND Cree, the viewer does not have an opporutnity to see how the styles are different, contributing to an inaccurate ‘pan-Indian’ view of our cultures. All the misinformation out there is a serious impediment to having Canadians understand who we are.  It is a serious impediment to understanding ourselves.

Try celebration, instead of appropriation

It’s okay to love our stuff.  You can even have a whole lot of it, legitimately and guilt-free! Take a look at the artisans/clothing page for some legitimate native swag.  Notice that none of these places are going to sell you eagle feathers or war bonnets.

There are a lot of knock-offs out there, and regardless of your views on pirated-anything, the fact is, buying cheap imitation “native stuff” hurts our communities and quite often perpetuates stereotypes and cultural confusion.

A lot of work and high quality materials go into aboriginal ‘stuff’.  Carvings, woven baskets, clothing…there are skills and training involved in producing this sort of thing that can be imitated, but not matched.  You can’t afford $200 for beaded and fur-trimmed moose-hide mocs?  Perhaps you should consider going without until you can.  Can’t afford an original piece of aboriginal art?  Buy a print. You can support aboriginal communities in a real, tangible way by supporting our artisans.

A lot of fakes are being produced both here in Canada and overseas.  Yes, that shit is offensive.  If you like our stuff enough to want it, then please.  Get it authentically.  Know what nation it comes from (Cree?  Dene?  Inuvialuit?) and who the artisan is.  If you’re buying art, find out what it means.  Does it represent a traditional story, or a modern one?  I mean…if you’re buying this stuff, don’t you want to know about it?

*sigh* I know that’s expecting a little much when you’re looking at a dream-catcher print t-shirt from H&M, but hopefully this will at least help people avoid buying stupid ugly fake headdresses from online and retail stores. This is a great article on approaching questions about fashion, btw, if you’re worried about feathered earrings and so on.

Anyway.  There is a lot more to be said on this topic, but I’m going to leave it there because holy, ever longwinded!


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Categories: Cultural appropriation, Culture, Decolonisation, Metis beadwork, Pan-Indian, Representation of natives

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134 Responses to The do’s, don’ts, maybes, and I-don’t-knows of cultural appropriation.

  1. Lisa says:

    Thanks for adding links to my website for authentic, inoffensive Metis moccasins and garments!

  2. Jenn Jilks says:

    This is an informative post. I’m aware of some of these issues. It bothers me to see some of the examples in life. I’ve seen a German silver worker using Aboriginal designs, images ans spiritual symbols in central Ontario. Great post.

    • At least in the US, there is a law that prohibits non-natives from passing their work off as native. We have nothing similar in Canada, though how such a law would work here is not something I’m prepared to figure out right now. A little questioning will usually uncover the truth, however, and I would like more people to insist on authentic work by aboriginal artists, if aboriginal work is what they want.

  3. Joey says:

    Thanks for posting this. I was often confused about what was cultural appropriation and what wasn’t, but the explanation of sacred things really did clear that up for me. I am very interested in many cultures and I am glad that it’s okay to be. I think so often people get really upset while discussing this and when I ask questions I’m seen as trying to argue when I’m really not. I just want to understand where “the line” is, you know? I feel like I have a better understanding of the subject now.

  4. Jadey says:

    This is fantastic! This definitely goes into my roster of links for the next time (and I know there will be a next time) someone asks me, “But why can’t I wear a feather? It looks so cool!”

    There are probably still going to be people who could read something like this and just not care (rargh), but I think that for at least some this might be the argument that finally penetrates and gets them thinking outside of their assumptions. I’ve read a lot of stuff on cultural appropriation, but this post shows me that I still have more to understand. I used to be embarrassed because I bought a lot of aboriginal art when I was a kid, and when I first learned about cultural appropriation and colonialism, I wasn’t sure if it was appropriate for me to own these things or display them. I think there will always be some fraught elements to a white settler displaying or wearing aboriginal items, even when these aren’t sacred or knock-offs, because of the societal power dynamics (i.e., I would be careful not to wear certain jewelry I own if I was going into a circumstance where I might mislead people to read me as aboriginal in a way that benefits me or to score “cred”), but you make very good points about the value of supporting artists.

    Thank you!

  5. Jadey says:

    (And by “aboriginal art” I do mean art made by aboriginal artisans! Mainly at pow-wows and also at some galleries and stores run by people from local reserves in my community growing up.)

  6. MJ says:

    Thank you so much for this! I’ve been trying to learn more about cultural appropriation, but it’s been difficult. Having this baseline understanding will make things a lot easier.

  7. Emo says:

    Through your tireless research on Tumblr, I have learned a lot about the crassness of drunken white people that I didn’t know already. The woman in this photograph (wearing what she tags as an “Indian Hat” at the Glastonbury Music festival) actually posted a self-justification for it as follows:
    [The photograph:]
    [The quotation from her blog:]
    [Question:] It’s pretty seldom that pics like these get posted by the people who are actually IN the photos, but that’s good. it gives me an opportunity to actually speak to you and ask you your thought process behind this. Why did you decide to put on that bonnet on and wear it to a concert? What was your motivation in this? What were you thinking? I really want to know. I want to know too. What was your mindset? Why, of all things to put on your head, wear an Indian headdress?
    [Her answer:] because it was beautiful seeing it there, i loved the colours and everything asnd i thought the best place to where one is the most unpredictable place, the next thing i know everyone had started doing it, i hope that helps.

    There’s a reciprocal aspect of this that is even stranger: it is now so common for white people to appropriate FN religiosity that it is expected of white people by many FN people themselves in strange contexts.

    I know a white woman (with no FN blood at all) who volunteers at a FN center (details are here left intentionally vague); people appreciate her and like her there, but when she expresses no interest in acquiring the usual accoutrements of FN religiosity, the response normally is, “Oh, so you’re part Indian after all?”, and she’s back to explaining that she’s merely a white person with good intentions (as on day one). I can completely understand why and how people (in the current generation) have developed this binary assumption: either you’re white and interested in dissimulating being FN, or you’re actually FN, and therefore not interested in dissimulating it (and, perhaps, you are not particularly interested in being invited to a traditional religious ceremony, because you’ve been to a hundred of them already, and will need to go to more when your family next cajoles you into it, etc. etc.).

    I’m not complaining about this, it is just a really strange “shadow” cast by the same problem you’re talking about: it has come to be assumed that all white people are involved in this kind of crass appropriation… (or, at least, all white people who have any interest in FN…) so when you demonstrate that you’re not into the appropriation, many FN people then revert to the assumption (earnestly enough) that you’re not really white (i.e., despite appearances).

    For the first time, recently, I saw a young FN guy (probably Cree, given where I met him) wearing a “Cleavland Indians” baseball hat (i.e., with the infamous logo of the “smiling Indian”, etc.). I looked twice, because I was wondering if he had written some political slogan on it, or if he had otherwise defaced it, but apparently not: the political commentary was presumed to be self-evident.

    • I wouldn’t say I’ve been doing research on tumblr the few days I’ve been there…more like enjoying every second of my time reading some truly kick-ass refutations of stereotypes and myths surrounding native people. I had no idea the place existed until a friend was showing me her tumblr page. Not that I needed another on-line place to spend all my time…

  8. Latining says:

    Thank you for posting this. I was just talking with a friend about where the line was. I would love to support Aboriginal artists, but it’s difficult for someone not of the culture to know what is and isn’t okay, especially with the colonialist history. I think this is a really useful rubric, but raises more questions than it answers. It does, however, provide a good ground for understanding what some of the key issues are and how to extrapolate to find the answers yourself. Really, I just think this is fantastic and thank you so much for writing it.

  9. jb says:

    Thank you for this thoughtful explanation. I guess I can count myself as one of the well-meaning but bumbling white folk and this has helped to set me straight. I remember years ago a Native friend of mine telling me how she much she disliked people getting tattoos of cultural symbols- whether Native symbols or otherwise. Her words stuck with me and have always made me think carefully about the use of other cultures’ icons and if doing so might be rude or racist. She didn’t explain to me why it made her uncomfortable, perhaps she couldn’t even articulate it herself at the time, but clearly she took issue with cultural appropriation. Reading this post finally sheds light on the issue and helps me to be more sensitive to it. Thank you.

  10. Brian Fisher says:

    Hello âpihtawikosisân. Your comment about “that damned two wolves story” got me going. I see that I am one of the few who didn’t get the reference so I looked a bit & the first thing I found was a British site with a $40 poster of the story with a photo of a wolf’s face staring out at me. So lots of folks are looking to make some money on the back of this story.

    Today my nephew posted the story on FaceBook. I responded with a link to your blog.
    After an extended exchange with one of his friends, he provided me with this link that attempted to find the story’s origin.

    One person in the discussion recounts his 1958 visit to a Cherokee Baptist Church in northeastern Oklahoma, very near the Cherokee Nation Tribal Headquarters. It was in a Sunday school and the parable was told to the class by one of the church’s elders.

    Are your objections to this story more about its exploitation than its message and origin?

    All the best,

    • That wasn’t my comment, it was Britt Reid from the article linked to.

      My issue with stories like these is that they are so vaguely attributed, and questionable in origin. Our stories come with provenance…as in, when we tell stories we say who we heard the story from, which community it comes from and so on. These kinds of stories presented by people as belonging to ‘the Cherokee’ are often stories that non-natives have made up themselves. Your spidey-senses begin tingling when the person telling the story can’t specific which community the story originates in, or what actual member of a community passed this story on. The practice of passing on stories without provenance (or making them up) is in direct violation of our storytelling traditions, and is in itself problematic.

      • Latining says:

        This is more of an anthropology question and I’m trying to separate it from colonial history as much as possible, because I recognise that in such a context the problem of appropriation is pretty obvious.

        Anyway, what I’m wondering is what is the view on cultures that view stories as being sacred and belonging to everybody? For context, I’m thinking about Greek and Roman epic that views stories as coming from the gods and therefore it is impossible to claim ownership or history because the stories are almost minor deities that inspire people to tell them. There is obviously a culture clash in storytelling traditions, and while I can understand the Greek perspective, I lack the lived experience to understand the other side.

        Sorry if that was long winded; stories and their transmission are fascinating to me, and I like all the perspective I can get.

        • There’s a distinction between provenance and ownership that’s important here. In the Cree context, the stories aren’t ‘owned,’ but they are always part of a chain of stories, passed down from one person to the next interpersonally. You learn them from someone who learned them from someone who learned them, in big long chains of stories. You’re allowed to alter or modify them as inspiration suggests, but there’s always a thread of continuity with earlier people and earlier stories.

          When someone who never was taught a story tells it, it breaks the chain and things get out of whack fast.

          This is a different worry than one of ‘ownership.’ There ARE aboriginal groups that ‘own’ stories. For example, many coastal peoples have ownership of important ceremonial objects/names and stories (e.g. Haida, Wakashan, Salish groups). Out there, it’s not just provenance but rightful entitlement to tell the story. That tradition has bled inwards onto the prairies in the past 25 years, through the hair-pullingly frustrating ‘pan-Indian’ approaches that have developed. Cree people from younger generations now talk this way, for example. I have a very negative opinion of these developments, wrt to Cree contexts.

          The Greek tradition is importantly informed by Writing, right? When you write something down, ownership and provenance issues shift quite substantially, since the story is now an Object. Most oral cultures work roughly in the ways aboriginal cultures here in North America work. Even oral English culture does – check out some of the excellent work done on the issue of “Entitlement” in English conversation and storytelling (e.g. Amy Shuman’s work). It’s only the written traditions that change these things drastically.

          This is why the writing down of sacred texts sometimes causes such troubles. For example, thanks to the anthropological work done by Swanton with the Haida back in the day, Robert Bringhurst can hop on over to a library, pull the texts, and republish them in whatever way he wants. Complete with his own pompous commentaries and wildly-inappropriate critiques. This violates all kinds of Haida cultural practices.

          For the Cree, it’s a bit tricky. The atâyôhkêwina told to Leonard Bloomfield were likely told to him AS him, not as a representative scribe, quite. It’s not clear what they thought would be done with the stories, quite. There is no ownership, really – only provenance, so for the old Cree tellers, it was perfectly fine to tell them to Bloomfield. It’s just not clear how that goes on to those of us that read them now. My own opinion is that, if you devote yourself, you can probably put yourself into that chain of provenance – reconstruct or resurrect it. At least, I hope so for the sake of modern Cree young people who have no stories to tell.

          • I was hoping you’d address this. I felt uncomfortable doing so.

          • just a reader says:

            Ownership vs. provenance vaguely reminds me of copyright vs. authorship – like the way a whole bunch of books are in the public domain but we still know who wrote them so we can republish them but it would be stupid of us to claim we wrote them ourselves. Am I on the right track?

  11. Gingerwombat says:

    Do you ever contact the sellers of these items to let them know it is inappropriate? Why or why not?

    • The two I linked to? I only have so much patience for this sort of thing. I find it’s more effective to deal with people who would otherwise not think twice about purchasing something like those items. That’s not to say I never talk to the producers of such items, because sometimes it is effective. More often however, I get to listen to delightfully obnoxious justifactory nonsense and the sellers go on doing the same old thing.

      So yes. I do. When I feel like engaging.

      How about you?

  12. Kim says:

    During the circus that was the 2010 Olympics in Whistler, the Cowichan knitters of the beautiful and famous Cowichan sweaters were ripped off for chinese knockoffs, just as the symbolism of those “games” were a culturally ambiguous ripoff of the Inuit Inuksuk, which has nothing what-so-ever to do with BC aboriginal culture. At the same time, the cartoon figures that were used for merchandizing were designed and manufactured in China. That should all be illegal.

  13. Kim says:

    Could you break down your name phonetically for me? It would help me memorise the spelling…

    • I’m not sure the pronunciation would help with the spelling 😀 It’s ah-pih-tuh-GO-si-sahn.

      • Latining says:

        Is the u sound closer to a soft “ah” or a more guttural “uh”?

      • You’re collapsing the -awi- to â âpihtâkosisân? 🙂 How cool! Never seen that pronunciation before, but it’s certainly a possible analogical extension of Cree phonology…! (aw plus i goes to â inside of stems quite a lot. wîhtamawêw vs. wîhtamâk) Also, you’re pronouncing the first vowel as ‘short’ a, not â. I’ve heard that both ways – it’s a confusing form with a lot of variation…

        • I’m not collapsing it when I say it actually, but when I say it out-loud people tend to not hear it. Same with the ‘h’, which I’ve had people describe as a ‘pause’. And I messed up the ‘ah’ and ‘u’ sound when I wrote it down by reversing it (now fixed) 😀 My ‘pronunciation guide’ was less about ‘how to say it properly’ and more about ‘how most people end up repeating it back to me’!

  14. ZK says:

    Thanks so much for this. In terms of your analogizing the misuse of other symbols like the Victoria Cross etc. I think it’s also useful to point out that cultural appropriation is (obviously) happening in a very specific cultural and historical context, and when symbols of the culture of a marginalized people are appropriated by the dominant culture, that has a very different meaning than if it were to happen the other way around. I think that because of the social and historical context here in Canada at this moment in time, it means something different and is especially problematic when its white people wearing headdresses or bindis or “navajo” print etc.

    • I don’t think there’s any difference. The people in a ‘dominant’ culture that are appropriating things in the ‘dominant’ culture are, by definition, not using the symbols of their own group. People who put crucifixes in bottles of urine are not catholics, for example, and do not respect what the crucifix means to catholic people. Hence, the appropriation is on the same frame as it is in the aboriginal situation – an outsider or outside group misusing a symbol for their own entertainment.

      Saying that it’s somehow ‘worse’ in the aboriginal situation because aboriginals aren’t the ‘majority’ is just continuing the discourse of aboriginals-as-children, I think. I think it’s more appropriate to treat them on the same level as everyone else. If you don’t respect other cultures and religions, why should you respect them? Because they’re weaker? Hardly a helpful argument.

      • Mmmm, I think the comment was an attempt to bring in the history of colonialism and margnialism I deliberately did not discuss, as I think this has been discussed better elsewhere and I was hoping to add something slightly different to it.

        • I was actually glad you avoided that issue in your post. I’m not much of a fan of the whole ‘marginalism’ thing, obviously. I think it puts aboriginal people eternally on the sidelines, waiting – hoping to finally get ‘recognition’ one day. They don’t need it – they’re the center of their own worlds if they want to be, you know? I mean, what did they do for 10,000 years before the British government forced them into treaties in (what is now called) Canada? Wait around for the King of England to recognize them? Nah – they were too busy Being Cree (or Being Blackfoot, or Being Saulteaux, etc.) to worry about what some chucklehead somewhere else thought about something.

          It’s part of the whole estrangement cycle that these people deal with, and I think the sooner aboriginal people stop thinking of themselves as ‘marginalized,’ the better for them.

  15. I have to object to phrases like ‘just some religious mumbo-jumbo with no further meaning.’ That, to me, is the root of the problem. But I’m weird.

    I guess my opinion on a lot of this stuff requires it to be contextualized wrt to the people who take the appropriation attitudes you’re talking about. The more general problem (I mean more general than the specific appropriation of aboriginal cultures) is that the majority of modern people don’t respect or value anything at all. In particular, this respect is lacking for things that have to do with the spiritual side of human life, which people now view as non-existent, I guess, having forgotten most of the reasons people that came before them decided that. Since aboriginal cultures (the ones I know anything about at least) tend to place a strong focus on the meanings behind physical things, the majority of the things they construct and value are ‘spiritual/religious’ in the modern scheme. As such, they will never get any respect now.

    Aboriginal beliefs and expression are not by any means alone. Take a look at reddit’s atheism page to see how Christianity fares in general, or ask anyone you know what they think of Mennonites, Evangelicals, Catholics, etc. and their cultural expressions. (How far do you think you’ll get on tumblr before you find an appropriation of Catholic symbolism?) People from an Islamic perspective are barely allowed to exist, much less have their cultural expressions respected. Western tourists happily tromp through Buddhist temples with their shoes on, asking who they can pay to light some joss sticks while Richard Gere expounds on his fancy understanding of Tibet. Madonna (note the name, obviously) puts a tilaka on her forehead and offends the entire Hindu word. Half the western world likes to Riverdance to their newfound Gaelic Spiritualism and get drunk like a leprechaun on St. Patty’s day.

    I think the way to combat aboriginal appropriation is to hit the root, not the branches. The root here is a disrespect for the value of other people’s insights, other perspectives, and other ways of seeing the world. People who don’t believe in anything they can’t put between their teeth or take out a certificate of ownership on have now won the debate, and the rest of us who take some other view (e.g. that the world is forms that hold meanings) are completely marginalized. The modern solution is to bulldoze over these significant differences (sometimes literally). It’s this approach that has thrown aboriginal cultures into the crisis they’re in, of course – but until everybody in these crises realizes they’re not alone – until Mennonites realize that the Cree are in much the same straits and the Cree realize that the Irish are suffering from many of the same problems, there’s not going to be enough of a concerted pushback to do anything. Every group tries to re-invent the wheel and fight alone (and each other).

    • I have to object to phrases like ‘just some religious mumbo-jumbo with no further meaning.’ That, to me, is the root of the problem. But I’m weird.

      I think there are two ways people approach how they conceive of the ‘sacred’ in their minds…as I mentioned before they tend to either elevate or reject. I think you’re talking about those who elevate (often to ridiculous heights). Except in doing so, they twist it out of all recognition.

      I read a great quote the other day I’m going to share to explain what I’m trying to get at.

      “Although the New Age moment claims to have parted ways with modernity, it actually replicates its fundamental values and practices. Specifically, the hyperindividualism of the movement, its emphasis on personal growth, and its profound materialism show the influence of the industrial capitalist ethos. The movement’s relationship with Native America is similarly complicated, and it further affirms these particularly Western values. Here, the New Age seems to work at cross-purposes, torn between its need for alternative cultural models and its unwillingness to challenge European America’s political and cultural dominance. While the New Age valorizes a distorted (Westernized) vision of Indianness, for example, it pays little heed to the historical presence or contemporary dilemmas of Native Americans. In Sherman Alexie’s words, the New Age “blindly pursues Native solutions of European problems but completely neglects to provide European solutions to Native problems.” Moreover, middle-class whites dominate the movement, and their relationship to Native America remains one of possession aimed at regenerating white society. In other words, the movement’s practices belie its claims to have wrested itself from America’s colonial history.”

      Shari M. Huhnforf, Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination

      I think that the elevating and rejecting crowd are both working from the same model you’ve described, but justifying this approach in different ways.

      • That’s a very good point, and a nice quote.

        I think you’re right that there’s two sorts of appropriaters to deal with. Your “mumbo jumbo” comment was meant as a jab at the elevators, then? In that sense, I think you’re probably right to use the phrase.

        Although I think there are a lot more upper-class whites in the New Age groups than perhaps is thought – check the prices of popular indian stuff on the west coast, for example.

        The elevaters are sometimes the worst to sort out. They are definitely seeking to solve personal problems by swallowing up another culture; they remind me of westerners who quick-convert to Buddhism or buy the Dalai Lama’s latest DVD… Sometimes, aboriginal people themselves have been estranged from their own religion by these types, and then turn it into a performance of ‘mumbo jumbo.’ That, to me, is the worst of it.

        I’ve been thinking about these appropriater types – the ones you’re calling elevaters – w.r.t. to aboriginal sexuality issues lately. That’s a real mess – the indian living in a ‘state of nature’ as an ‘untouched child of nature’ running free and naked in the woods (a la Disney’s Playboy Pocahontas) and all that.

    • Nokamis says:

      Sounds ominous Mr. Moniya, and sadly correct, however I will continue to subscribe to your earlier opinion “… that, if you devote yourself, you can probably put yourself into that chain of provenance – reconstruct or resurrect it. At least, I hope so for the sake of modern Cree young people who have no stories to tell.”

      It saddens me deeply to see our traditions bastardized, however, as I continue in the telling of our old people’s stories to my grandchildren I take much comfort in knowing they will continue to fan the flames of our oral tradition for generations to come.

    • Emo says:

      Jeff, I know you don’t want to hear it, but I find a great deal of what you have to say logically flawed.

      “Religion” as a category is not more real than the specific instances that are in that category; and respect between one religion and another is a reciprocal arrangement, unique to each pair, and very difficult to generalize about. The asymmetries of history are very much the point that your line of reasoning refuses to take seriously. It is entirely possible for Muslims to practice their religion inside Buddhist countries (under Buddhist governments) and they do, with large Muslim temples and communities found throughout places as diverse as Sri Lanka and Thailand; meanwhile, it is both illegal and impossible for Buddhists to practice their religion inside Saudi Arabia (and you can look at other examples of majority-Muslim countries on a case-by-case basis… some of them just barely tolerate the existence of Buddhist temples, and some don’t at all, etc.). I’m not making a grandiose generalization here: I’m arguing that there’s a great deal to be learned from looking at specific instances, whereas the general category (e.g., “respect for religion”) is really misleading. The respect that one religion accords another may not be reciprocated: First Nations may be indulgent of monotheism, while the monotheists (in return) may regard everything about First Nations religiosity as “the devil” to be destroyed.

      With the indigenous peoples of Canada, the asymmetry is extreme, and I find all of your arguments on the matter logically flawed. It simply isn’t the case that the Cree conquered England (nor even the Isle of Jersey) to then force the British to conform to Cree religious expectations. It is simply not the case that the Cree built their farms on land that had formerly belonged to Hutterites (i.e., there is a glaring lack of reciprocity, in that the Cree do not have land given to them for “colonies” in Austria, where the Hutterites come from). I find it completely absurd to say (as you do) that the Cree need to find “common cause” with the Mennonites and the Irish. What exactly is their common cause? You imagine that they share in this common abstraction of “religion”, and you contrast that category to everything you dislike about modernity. That is, simply, absurd. You may just as well preach to the government of Saudi Arabia that it is in their interest to build Buddhist temples within their territory for the sake of their common religiosity (they would then be united against all the people whom you deplore for not believing in anything, Jeff?).

      Each religion is incompatible with the others, and the history of their (reciprocal) relationships emerges from the terrible history of conquest and conversion by the sword. Do you really think it is the case that “People from an Islamic perspective are barely allowed to exist, much less have their cultural expressions respected”? Where? Here in Canada? Muslims are now over 2.8% of the population of Canada; they may outnumber indigenous people soon enough, as the projection is that the number will continue to rapidly grow. I’d say that Islamic religion and culture is flourishing in Canada especially relative to indigenous culture; if you make a map of the mosques you can visit in Toronto, you’ve an impressive array of choices, compared to First Nations institutions of any kind (spiritual or not). If you made a map of how many places you can hear Arabic (or any given language that has recently arrived from the Muslim world) spoken fluently, you would have a map full of dots, compared to Cree, Ojibwe, Mohawk, etc.; and Toronto is full of shops with signs written out in Arabic, Farsi, etc. etc., while you’ll never see a sign up in an indigenous language.

      If you contrast the religious history of First Nations in Canada to any other group (from the Hutterites to the Muslims) it is very clear who has been “barely allowed to exist”. Immigration and religion are part and parcel of the process of cultural genocide. And given that you talk so much about having respect for others’ beliefs… why can’t you extend that respect to people who (from your perspective) “don’t believe in anything”?

      • Yeah you’re exactly what I’m talking about, actually. You are playing both ends of the argument. On the one hand you think you’re neutral and logical and somehow ‘unmarked,’ while the religious folks are all marked and non-neutral. On the other, you demand to be treated on par with a religious belief, which makes you actually a competitor of religion, rather than a simple observer of it.

        I really have nothing else to say to most of that. Have a nice time being angry! 🙂

      • just a reader says:

        “Each religion is incompatible with the others”

        Even Shinto and Buddhism, when often in Japan the same person observes both of those religions at the same time?

  16. Latining says:

    Thank you for the informative response. I knew about half of that from disparate contexts, but wasn’t sure how it fit into the whole, and you made things very clear. I appreciate it.

    I was actually asking about Greek because epic poetry comes from oral tradition and gets most of its conventions from there (although you’re right, there’s a shift in style with literacy and I should have been more clear I was thinking about the oral tradition), and I found the very different approaches to oral storytelling and the conventions around it interesting. I wasn’t trying to sound like I thought the Greek tradition was superior, just trying to explain my frame of reference. I’m very sorry if (that?) it came off that way.

    • I don’t think it came off that way at all:)

    • If this is in response to your question above about Greek/Cree orality, I didn’t see where you were implying that the Greek tradition was superior either! 🙂 Did my response make it sound that way?? I think it’s an excellent idea to compare Cree literature/philosophy/language to the classical world for a variety of reasons. People tend to be sensitive about it, though – largely, I think, from an inferiority complex about not knowing the classic stuff as well as they really ought to (being European-descendants and all, whose entire worldview has been shaped by this stuff).

      Epic poetry was definitely part of the oral tradition, like you say. I was taught back when I was a classics major that the rhythmic aspects of these poems were originally mnemonic devices, in fact. That’s pretty clearly true for the great central asian oral epics…

      The Cree don’t really have what we’d call poetry – not historically anyway. Fidelity of transmission wasn’t thought of the same way, so it’s a tough comparison to make clearly…

  17. Yannick says:

    You know, your blog is really wonderful for Canadians who aren’t Métis, First Nations or Inuits. I get to learn so much about topics that can only be discussed in ignorance otherwise! It’s wonderful.

  18. Jacob V says:

    Telling me or anyone that they should respect the ideas or notions of one specific people group or culture is absurd. It makes no more sense than asking someone of African decent to respect the symbols of the KKK because they reflect the beliefs and cultures of a group of people. Irrational twaddle.

    • Yes. It is indeed ridiculous that anyone should have to tell you to be respectful in the first place. I agree. This should be common sense.

      No but really…if you don’t want to respect other people’s cultures, make sure you don’t claim that you are. Just admit straight up that you don’t care about being disrespectful.

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  20. Lianne says:

    I had no idea that the Metis sash was something non-Metis people shouldn’t wear. Here in Winnipeg, practically everyone (or at least everyone French) wears one, but just around the time of Festival du Voyageur. That’s the time when we celebrate our heritage (by “we” and “our” I mean both French Canadians and Metis), do lots of snowshoing, wear “Keeping it Riel” t-shirts, etc. Is my whole city guilty of appropriation? Or do the historical ties between French Canadians and Metis change that? (I’m not trying to be antagonistic or anything; this is just a bit of a shock to a Winnipegger’s system. 🙂 )

    • Context matters too. The context of the sash is not lost from what you’re telling me. It isn’t just a fashion accessory, something ‘cute’ to add to an outfit with no further thought put into it. Over here in Quebec, the sash is often worn in traditional francophone winter celebrations and its meaning is different. It is also legitimately theirs. The Dutch also have a version, btw, which I was surprised to learn one year.

      I think what you are describing is a situation where the wider population is aware of a particular cultural context and share parts of it. It’s a far cry from having sash t-shirts or sash embroidered coats from Urban Outfitters 😀

      • Monique says:


        To add to Leanne’s comment, I would like to that the sash is usually worn within the context of Festival du Voyageur, or by historic interpreters who are interpreting Métis or fur trade history either at Festival or elsewhere. It’s also worn during francophone cultural celebrations because of its association with voyageurs. Interestingly, the fur trade companies started issuing voyageurs with plain red worsted sashes that were woven on looms in northern England because they were so useful.

        I didn’t know there was a Dutch version though, thanks for that titbit!

        • Lianne says:

          Thanks very much âpihtawikosisân and Monique for your responses; that clears things up a lot!

          Urban Outfitters should really stop trying to “celebrate” cultures, because it just never ends well. 😛

          • Marie L says:

            I know this is an old post 😛 but for anyone else who happens to be still reading comments….

            I would say that there are SOME Metis sashes that can be worn by non Metis people. I work for the MNO at a. University and occasionally we give fill sized sashes or little sashes (pins, garter sashes ect) that are given out as prizes at our events or as gifts for people. These sashes are firstly not the super nice ones that takes a bazillions hours to make and their design hold no specific meaning. They are usually made to demonstrate traditiona colours (though the colours have meanings!) and discuss historical background.

            HOWEVER that doesn’t mean all sashes are made to be worn by everyone. Some sash designs represent cultural identity, where you are from, achievements and even status occasionally. My work had sashes designed for everyone in my position (red with white centre and black flèche) which aside from showing that we represent them at our schools, also hold it’s own symbolism. Thus only someone who filled that position could wear one.

            Similarly, I’m a francophone but I could not wear the franco-Manitoban sash as I’m not part of that ethnic identity. Etchiboy is a good website I use on occasion as it labels and describes each sash design, I believe with the intention of informing peopel ‘hey this is a nice sash yes but it’s a FRANCO MANITOBAN sash’

            Anyways, that’s just my two sense!

  21. N says:

    This is really excellent and constructive. It’s also been interesting to me, as an Asian-Canadian, to compare the differences and similarities in the way Native and East Asian cultures are appropriated, especially thinking in terms of restricted and unrestricted clothing and adornments.

  22. Zoe says:


    I saw the shortened version of this on Tumblr but came here to look at the more extensive version, and want to thank you so much for making this post! I was born and grew up in Britain, so the culture and issues of indigenous people are more far away for me, both geographically and in the sense that our culture doesn’t really focus on them the same way that white American/Australian/New Zealand/etc culture does. I came across the term “cultural appropriation” fairly recently, but was a bit confused as to what was actually covered by this – especially when it comes to things such as, say, liking Indian/Chinese food or such. This post makes the distinction in a very clear, informative way and also explains the difference between “appreciating” and “appropriating” in ways that everyone can understand, and also completely refutes the “well, what CAN I wear? I might as well be naked!” argument that some people use when talking about appropriation. I’m sort of glad that there are things that us white folks can wear that, while from another culture, is not offensive or belittling sacred values – I would never want to offend somebody by doing that, but I also do find these things incredibly beautiful and would love a way to celebrate my appreciation of them in a non-offensive way. Not sure if that makes total sense but I tried…

    The restricted v. not-restricted part of this also highlights one of the bad arguments that people make against not taking people’s sacred symbols – such as, “Lolita fashion heavily borrows from British culture, should no one in Japan wear that?!” Well, to be quite honest, Brits don’t care. Nothing in Lolita fashion – the dresses, the tea parties, the moral values – has ever been sacred to us Brits and, as such, we really don’t mind. I’m not sure if it’s appropriate to talk about appropriation of white cultures (I’d appreciate an answer on this, actually) but it’s a pretty common argument I see and one that I can actually refute.

    Anyway, long story short, this is a wonderful post!

    • Robert Columbia says:

      Your comment on Lolita makes a great point. Lolita in fact has come “full circle” in a sense, as it is now worn by Europeans. We can thus ask the question as to whether these European Lolitas are appropriating from Japanese culture, or whether they are re-appropriating the underlying European elements that Japanese people had previously appropriated.

      That leads to a second question to consider – is “tit for tat” appropriation ever appropriate? E.g. if Culture X appropriates something from Culture Y, is it acceptable for Culture Y to take something of equal value from Culture X, or would that be a case of (forgive the analogy) “a sacred object for a sacred object makes the whole world disrespectful”?

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  24. Eliza says:

    I can’t tell you how much I appreciate this post. I understand the hurt that cultural appropriation can cause, but that doesn’t mean “every white person wearing _____ is racist” like I’ve heard too often. (with the obvious implication that it is white people and *only* white people who do or can do this.)

    I love that you’ve laid out very simply the difference between sacred/important/restricted, and merely culturally indicative, and that the latter isn’t wrong, especially if effort is put into understanding it and not just ‘it’s pretty’.

    Thank you for being far more fair than I’ve heard from too many others.

  25. prairienymph says:

    I really appreciate this article. 2 questions:

    1) Fashion is not the only thing to be culturally appropriated. I was having a discussion with another white queer person who claimed that the term “Two-Spirit” should never be used by a non-Native. May I ask your opinion on this? It is a brilliant phrase that illustrates how many people feel. Would finding that term useful in personal identity be a homage to those who first said it or is this a case of wrongful appropriation? I was not sure since gender identity questions are universally human, although the term originated with the North American natives as a reflection of their specific cultural values (which I wish we all shared).

    2) I spent some time in India and wore saris every day. I still have them since they are beautiful and make me feel beautiful. When I have worn them in Canada, I’ve only received positive comments Indians or Pakistanis. Yet, because I am pale I feel like others (other white people) would not approve of me wearing them and I would be seen not as needing to feel a connection to that part of my life but as imitating another culture to get attention. Does anyone have any thoughts?

    • I discuss two-spirit identity here:

      No, I do not think it is appropriate for non-native people to use this term, and the reason for that is more clearly fleshed out in that article.

      I don’t really have an informed opinion on wearing a sari, sorry.

      • ann says:

        I also began wearing saris while living in India and, while there, received positive comments from the people around me. Many people expressed to me that they saw my clothing and jewelry (I also wear a nose ring and, while in India wore anklets, toe rings, bindis, bangles, etc as appropriate for a married woman) as a gesture of respect to their culture (certain clothing commonly worn in the US was seen as inappropriate in the parts of India where I was living). Likewise my husband’s (very fumbling) and my (somewhat fumbling) attempts to speak in Hindi were greeted very positively as a sign of respect.

        However, now that I’m back in the US I seldom wear my saris because, while they were just my day-to-day clothes in India, I was often perceived as wearing a costume in the US, which was not the impression I wanted to given.

        I think there is probably also a difference between the sort mass-market saris worn by everyone in India’s cities (almost always draped in the same way) and traditional saris worn only by certain groups within India (and draped in a variety of different ways).

  26. prairienymph says:

    Thanks. I wanted a better answer than “you’re racist if you don’t understand”. The intersectionality of the word makes a lot of sense. Do you take issue with Indigenous people not from cultures that had the concept of two-spirit claiming it?

    • prairienymph says:

      Ah, I mean because of the intersectionality because of their Indigenous and gender identities… It would make sense to me that any North American Native person could legitimately claim two-spirit even if their particular Nation had no evidence of it being part of their particular background. Sorry, you probably answered this in the other post. I will look in the comments section.

    • No, because the term and modern day concept is somewhat pan-Indian, meant to encompass a variety of diverse traditions.

  27. Alison says:

    Just wanting to say that I love your blog. Thanks for your great writing. 🙂

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  30. Hecate says:

    As someone who’s fed up with all the social justice screeching on tumblr, I just want to say that I LIKE this post. It’s explanatory, it’s not condescending, and it lays things out in a way someone who’s less knowledgeable can understand without being demonized for it.

    I really wish more people were like you.

  31. HB says:

    “You’re never going to get complete agreement with in any community.” Yep. That’s certainly true. So, lets take your moccasin example, you say you’re ok with me (a white person wearing them). But surely there are people with in your community who aren’t ok with it, right? Another example would be jazz music, I play jazz guitar, and have learned quite a bit about the history of Jazz music. Yet, I’m sure that there are African Americans who aren’t ok with me being a jazz musician, but there are many many who are. So do I just decide to quite doing the thing I love because there are people who aren’t ok with it? If I ask people from the group in question about these things, no doubt I’ll get very different answers from each person. But there will probably always be someone who thinks what I’m doing isn’t ok, which makes this decision somewhat difficult. Not to mention who confusing globalization has made all of this. Things like this article are a good start, though.

  32. Sarah says:

    This was an absolutely fantastic post. I’ve spent the last few hours reading and commenting on articles and blog posts on cultural appropriation and this is without doubt the best post I’ve seen. For a very simple reason: It’s the first post that has explained what cultural appropriation is WITHOUT criticizing the reader for not knowing/ stereotyping the reader. Just as I try, when explaining issues of sexual violence to male friends who don’t understand the problem with rape jokes, not to belittle or minimize but to explain my perspective, I really started to understand exactly how appropriation IS a big issue reading this.

    Almost every conversation I’ve tried to have in which I questioned how/what cultural appropriation is has immediately led to people assuming that I’m trying to claim it doesn’t exist or matter. I’m really, really not. Usually this consists of being told to “check my privilege” (sorry, I’m young, female, gay and most importantly a former foster kid who grew up in some truly horrible neighborhoods… I may be white but try telling my teachers growing up that I was not “trouble” or “jailbait”… telling me that I have no idea what it feels like to be discriminated against pretty much automatically gets me defensive even IF the person is making a good point.) OR claims that my talking about the appropriation of a “white” culture is just trying to demonstrate a point to negate my guilt for said privilege (I’m also Irish… Dublin Irish, not American Irish…. and North American “St. Paddy’s” DOES bother me).

    I also think one of the biggest problems is that SO many things are being labelled as appropriation now that it is the new “buzz word”. To my mind, things that are purely fashion in their own culture, dance moves, foods etc. shouldn’t be treated in the same way as things that have a genuine religious or cultural value to a group of people. To label “twerking” as cultural appropriation really cheapens the very real issue at hand of the cultural appropriation of something of value to an otherwise oppressed group.

    Your post has really helped me understand the intricacies of cultural appropriation – I’ll admit, I wasn’t before simply because the two approaches above really had me of the defensive. I know it isn’t about my “feelings”… but I do appreciate the attempt to explain rather than criticize. Not that I have ever (or will ever) wear a headdress or bindi etc.

    Sorry for the semi-rant and thanks for the thought provoking post 🙂

  33. Jem says:

    Great article! Thanks. I have a question and would love your opinion. I am an artist who has worked in many styles and mediums. I love to experiment. I have worked and taught in several First Nations communities along the west coast and love their different styles of drawing and art. I have found that some of the styles of drawing are creeping into my own thoughts and works of art. I also purchased a wonderful set of instructional books, which are published by a First Nations artist, to get more detail about the different styles and ways of drawing.

    My works are going to be published and sold as prints in the near future and I was wondering if that is okay or cultural appropriation? I would never want to offend anyone with my own work but the synthesis of style is compelling as an artist. I am of Scandinavian decent and much of my Norse background comes through as well in the line drawings. Personally, I find the mass commercialization of art and culture problematic.

    Everyone has a different opinion about what is important in their culture or religion, and what is offensive. We also have a blended family situation and my husband has taken on my Scandinavian traditions despite his own cultural background. He does not identify himself as a Swede but his activities and culture would suggest such.

    To be honest, the more I think about these issues, the more confused I become. I really want to show proper respect.

  34. Zoya says:

    Great article! Hats off man. I think you have elaborated it very well.

  35. JJ says:

    A great post and thanks for the interesting read. I am always amazed at reading about other Aboriginal cultures around the world. Cheers, JJ

  36. Rybesauce says:

    Hate to pop in with the delayed reactions, bu I had to comment.:D Awesome article! I’ve been perusing many appropriation related articles lately trying to clear up some confusions in my own brain on the topic. Many people seem to present it as if any inspiration taken from outside of your own culture is always appropriation which is just…that seems rather damaging to creativity for humanity, to only be able to look in your own tiny sphere. And talking from a clothing design perspective, as much as I love lederhosen, the wider world has many additional interesting things to present! I don’t want to be an imperialist dillhole, but pretty is pretty! But I think you presented the topic in a way that clears up some of the foggy areas quite nicely 🙂 It’s okay to be inspired by things. Just do your research about what you’re looking at before you go too far, and don’t steal stuff because it ‘looks cool’ be it clothes, art, architecture, tattoos…etc. Pretty simple really. Not sure why it too me so long to find a straight(ish) answer, hah!

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  38. MIKE says:

    you are wrong in your article a sari is sacred and is not for anyone else except hindus and Sikhs so prevent making a fool of yourselves if you are not east indian as well east Indians do not like other races especially oppressors who are white European white western to be misappropriating their culture, even Hinduism has no converts and is strictly forbidden especially in temples. find something better to do with your lives and quit pestering and mocking other races. india itself has only gained its independence back 67 years ago after invasions so it is clear they do not like white people tainting and watering down their religion .in fact white people are frowned upon by east Indians. due to invasion and theft as well violence and slander ,oppression racism, xenophobia of bigotry and defamation of character. east Indians have been dehumanized by Europeans and further harassment will lead to problems. most of asia are already aware about what white people have done by tainting Christianity and renaming the Christian lord jesus Christ when his real name is yeshua messiach and he wasn’t white . because of all the atrocities which have been committed as well Pontius pilates and the romans who are white which killed the Christian lord and whites then converted in 1100 bc e there is allot of tension as the Hebrew Israelites were not white at all.the jews of today are not the true descendants of Abraham they are colonys who came from Europe to Israel and are violating Palestinian rights and lands by settling there and building apartments.why doesn’t Kerry and harper sanction them is beyond me. yet Kerry yet the west seems to live hypocrisy and live ion native land illegally and sanction Russia for crimea when crimea was part of Russia and same with Ukraine which was referred to (OLD) RUSSIA. exploitation will have a price as the white guy who in America created a movie regarding islam was responsible for 4 white males in the middle east embassy getting massacred.

    • Please stop speaking for others to ‘make a point’.

    • Meena says:

      Hi, I am an Indian Hindu woman and the part Mike says about how we feel is very true. The thing is,(in brief) our white oppressive colonizers rewrote our history books and left a devious education system for us with the avowed goal of making Hindus become self-loathing. They achieved their purpose—until the Internet came along and gradually the truth is surfacing and yes, the growing number of Hindus are enraged by what was done to them. So, we want us, our culture and religion to be left alone wish the white people would mind their own business! This appropriation on flimsy grounds of things outside the western culture being “pretty” and hence their entitlement, really sucks. Neither do we seek white converts to our religion overtly or covertly.
      I also can’t help notice it is almost always the white people who are prowling and cherry-picking on other cultures, tribes and religions. Is that the stinking white privilege attitude. The vast majority of diaspora/urban Hindus are polite and accommodating. It does not mean we appreciate the other peoples helping themselves to our culture,symbols,willy-nilly. It is high time we Hindus shed our politeness and draw our boundaries.

  39. MIKE says:

    on typo my point is walking on eggshells has its price when there is no permission granted to do the things your mind turns out to do by curiosity because curiosity killed the cat and there have been examples literally made by that notion

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  41. Jennifer says:

    I just saw the video for “Sisters” by A Tribe Called Red featuring Northern Voice at with a Commentary article, and it so reminded me of this again! 🙂

    The article says “…There are no feathered or face painted partiers here either, perhaps a visual cue to clueless partiers still showing up to A Tribe Called Red concerts in ‘redface.’…” and the video does have partiers in what seem to my untutored eye to be mukluk boots.

  42. I have a tattoo that has bead work and feathers on it in memory of my grandfather because he traveled around to different reservations in the mid west to find himself before he passed away…
    Is this an offensive tattoo? Please let me know because if it is I’d like to get it covered!

    Thanks guys 🙂

  43. Mike Zellers says:

    This is the best article I’ve read on the topic. I feel I understand the topic much better. Bet you are a great teacher.

  44. Donald E. King says:

    I have not yet had time to read all of the many, many responses. This indicates to me how sensitive and polarized people often are surrounding this issue. Regardless of your views, this is an excellent article that provides information, insight, and encouragement in a clear, civil, and balanced way. Thank you to the author and all of you who will read the article and responses as you think about the concerns with an open mind seeking ways to work through the many conflicting opinions and actions.

  45. River says:

    I’m an American white woman. I don’t identify as a hipster, I don’t want in any way to participate in cultural appropriation/misappropriation, and I agree completely that non-Natives should not wear Native regalia or things that resemble such regalia, especially people of European descent like me. I have a couple of questions, however.

    I’ve read in some places that wearing multiple pieces of Native jewelry is appropriation, especially Diné jewelry. I have several pieces of jewelry made by Diné artists, for which I happily paid a price that showed respect to the artist. I have been known to wear more than one piece at a time. I also have a brother who is Tiwa and who is a noted silver artist, and I have purchased a number of pieces of his jewelry, some of which he created specifically for me and some that he did not, including two concha belts, necklaces, a wide bracelet, a ring and a pin which was a gift from him. I am deeply honored to be a part of his family and I wear his artwork with pride, and often wear more than one piece at once, such as a belt, a necklace, and the bracelet. When people admire it, I tell them that my brother made it and give them his business card, which I have in my purse just for this purpose. Is wearing multiple pieces of Native jewelry a cultural appropriation? If it is, I will stop. I am worried that it will draw less attention to my brother’s artwork, however, and cut down on my ability to drive business to him this way.

    I suppose I need to mention that this brother, my brother who is Apache/Syrian, and my Anishinaabe sister are not my kin via blood or marriage but via water sharing, a rite in my Pagan tradition in which we become family. (I have four other brothers and sisters via the same rite, none of them Native.) They are as much my brothers and sisters as those who were born to my mother and father and I love them unconditionally for who they are. I will and have done anything needed to help them be safe and happy and they will and have all done the same for me and my husband. I am not Native; they are. The fact that they are my family does not make me Native. I just want to be clear on that.

    The other questions I have concern wearing feathers and headdresses. Are all feather headdresses cultural appropriation, even ones which bear only a slight resemblance to Native sacred regalia or none at all? What about wearing feathers? Is wearing a feather and or more than one (a peacock or pheasant feather, for instance) in one’s hair wrong? What about feather earrings? I like them. I have a pair of peacock feather earrings and when I was a young teen, I made earrings from mallard duck feathers shed in molt which I collected at a local pond. Was I wrong to do so, and am I wrong to wear feather earrings? If I am, I owe a public apology to my Native family, friends, and fellow anti-mascotry activists and to Native people in general.

    I hope you choose to answer this, because despite all the posts and articles I have read on cultural appropriation, particularly from Natives, I still haven’t been able to determine the answers to any of these particular questions. I realize it is not your job to educate me and am not placing expectations on you, so if you choose to answer, I will be grateful and honored.

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  47. Michal Day says:

    Thank you for this article. I have a question that has been weighing on my mind. I’m from Oklahoma, and I’ve grown up wearing Native American jewelry and moccasins. I come from a lot of different ancestry, and one of them is Cherokee but our family has no paper proof for this. Growing up knowing this, but not feeling like I could really ever declare it has gotten me a bit confused. I do have a lot of emotions around it because when I got older, I began to be drawn to many of the spiritual and shamanic beliefs alongside with my Christian beliefs as well.

    My question is: I went to a Pow-Wow, and I bought a Bone-Choker necklace. I’ve worn it a few times, but felt nervous. I’ve stopped wearing it out of fear I don’t deserve to wear it. I don’t want to offend anyone or denigrate the meaning of the necklace. What should I do at this point? I truly want to do the right thing.

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  50. Martha says:

    Hello! This is such a beautifully well worded article, and your point comes across so clearly, but without conceit. Well done! I have a question for you, which I would love you input on. I am a Canadian woman (my heritage is Maltese and English, but I have lived in Canada my whole life). I was raised in Nova Scotia, in a small town called Antigonish. I lived near the water and my sister, papa, and I would go for long walks on one of our many beaches near by, and canoe a lot. During each of our walks/ canoe trips when we got to a particularly rocky area of the beach, we would make an inukshuk with our favourite stones. It is a childhood memory of mine that I cherish, and recently I decided that I would like to commemorate those memories by getting an inukshuk tattoo. I am a Women’s Studies major, which has serious overlaps in cultural studies, which means that I am very aware that as a white, Canadian woman this tattoo could offend some people. This is the last thing that I would want to happen, so I would love to hear what you think before I take any permanent steps. Is this tattoo racist? Thank you!

  51. Triptrap says:

    Hey, first of all i’d really like to thank you about this long but very informative, well written and well thought out blog entry. I’m from Germany so America/ Canada with their native people(s) and cultures are far away. Of course cultural appropriation and stereotyping of indigenous people is happening here as well, but the criticism of it not so much.
    Ever since i got pushed onto the topic of cultural appropriation and kept reading about it, all it did was confuse, frustrate and enrage me, because, just as you said, it is a very heated and emotional one. It came to a point where i didn’t even want to get into contact with any other culture any more because i was so scared of doing something wrong and being critizised and hated for it.
    Your post really helped me understand what cultural appropriation really is, and what to do/not to do in this context.
    I’m happy that i can get interested in and admire another culture,their designs and symbols without stepping on those peoples toes, and you just showed me some of the ways how to go for it.

    Just a short Question about the feathers: What about me as a European wearing as an accessoire or using feathers in general (not eagle feathers, but from just any bird)? And more specifically: what about european eagles and their feathers (sadly they’re nearly extinct in many places, but i’d just like to know)?

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  53. Mary says:

    Hi, so I know I’m late to the discussion, but I’ve been heavily researching native cultures for a story of mine (fantasy novella with some cultures inspired by various North American natives, particularly those of B.C.). They’re fascinating, though I’m saddened by how much more difficult it is to research them compared to some other cultures I’ve researched (my focus in uni was vikings, though my degree also required general study of medieval Europe). Thank you for writing this article from a relatively objective viewpoint; so many I’ve attack as much as they explain, which, as you and many have pointed out, result in a knee-jerk reaction from others. I’m pansexual, genderfluid and generally present as female, so that reaction is particularly strong in me because I’m so used to being discriminated against myself. It’s why I always do copious amounts of research whenever I’m incorporating other cultures in my stories, whether fantasy or set in our world–I want to see queer folk represented as people, and others want to see themselves represented as people as well.

    Anyway, unrelated question: I’ve noticed a lot of posts on cultural appropriation mention to, if wanting to buy native-inspired clothing and accessories, buy from a native artisan. Yet some of the same articles make it sound like I, being white, can’t wear them because others might think I bought them from a mass retailer for shits and giggles/because they’re ~pretty~. Feather earrings I feel like has been answered (I make my own out of duck feathers and have received many compliments from native artists in my city. They said they’re fine with me wearing them because I’m clearly not trying to dress up, so to speak. I understand that other natives might have different opinions). But, online at least, it sounds like there’s more ambiguity when it comes to moccasins and garments with native art-inspired prints. I guess, basically, if I were to buy a pair of moccasins from a native artist, whether local or online, would it be okay for me to wear them out? I’ve found a few pairs I really like and I want to support a native artist, but I don’t want to buy a pair if I can’t wear them outside…

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  56. A says:

    Hi âpihtawikosisân,

    Thank you for this article. With the recent media blitz regarding banning headdresses, I’m glad your blog is available as a resource.

    I have a handmade Métis sash that I won in a silent auction to benefit the Aboriginal Student Club at the college where I used to work. I was told that the sash is traditional colours (I live in Alberta). The people at the Aboriginal Centre said that if I wore it around my waist (I’m a woman) at appropriate events no one would mind. I never quite felt comfortable with that and never did. Thank goodness, based on what I’ve just read on your blog.

    I’m wondering what an appropriate and respectable thing to do with the sash would be? It currently hangs on the back of my chair in my office because I think it’s beautiful, but now that I know it’s a restricted symbol I don’t want to reduce it to décor.

    Thank you again.


    • As a Métis woman, I would definitely not be comfortable with non-Métis wearing the sash, outside of those who claim it via their francophone heritage, so I really appreciate you not wearing it. It is definitely an odd thing to have auctioned off, in my opinion. Generally one receives a sash via gifting, not purchasing it or bidding for it in an auction. However, I think having it in some sort of respectful display is not a bad thing, if one is not laying claim to Métis identity through it. Not necessarily on the back of a chair mind you 😀 Perhaps on the wall?

  57. Paulina says:

    Hi there, I have been trying to learn more about cultural appropriation and I really enjoyed this post, not only because it is informative but because it has helped me to understand more about why is it bad that a symbol (with an important meaning and story behind) becomes mainstream, something that I was having trouble to wrap my mind around.

    And I have some questions, in the majority of the posts about cultural appropriation there is always the parallel white-western culture vs other culture, saying that it is disrespectful to wear something of another community or culture specially if the people that are a part of the culture can not wear this symbols without being criticized, because of the white privilege.
    So it confuses me because it is sort of saying that cultural appropriation can only be done by white people? And also, is cultural appropriation only about symbols or can it also be about philosophies or practices? I mean, I’m colombian, but I really love yoga and the philosophie behind it, Am I doing cultural appropriation?
    Thank you!

    • Mike Zellers says:

      My two cents… there is a difference between a serious study of yoga and seeing it as an exercise class, or as a lifestyle accessory. As far as can only white folks be accused of cultural appropriation… I don’t think so. For example, this:

      I do think when people of privilege do it, it adds insult to injury.

      All that being said, I think most cases of cultural appropriation involve white people appropriating other colors. I think it’s a case of wanting to seem exotic or not as boring… or perhaps even trying to distance themselves from white culture

  58. Dante says:

    apihtawikosisan, sorry if any of this sounds off or rude i am not the best at wording things all the time. I do respect the culture and i understand the frustration of sacred symbols being tossed around and printed on tshirts and work by 1 out of 8 ignorant teenagers. I know eagle feathers sashes and headdresses are a sign of achievement, i just wanted to say this and get your opinion on this because i am not an expert; animal skin headdresses are worn in other cultures, most people i believe would assume it to be of your culture and there for find it offensive. If a pagan were to wear an animal skin during a pagan festival or ritual or what have you, would you/others find it offensive? Im talking a plain animal skin no feathers and beads ( or very little of that at least). Although i believe if you look at it from a spiritual aspect if you have all those add ons you would obstruct the flow of energy. Anyways sorry for the poorly written comment aah!

  59. Brahm says:

    @âpihtawikosisân Wondering what your thoughts are on United States v. Alvarez, and the Stolen Valor Act of 2005? I.e. It seems that there is a distinction that can be made between the concert-goer who wears a headdress but isn’t trying to fool anyone; and the German silversmith who makes a profit selling jewelry with aboriginal designs. The former is protected free speech (however ignorant or offensive) and the latter is fraud. Yes/No?

  60. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ says:

    I strongly agree with everything you said and I often fail to understand why people choose to be ignorant on the subject of appropriation. One point I have to disagree with is what you said about the Metis sash. The ceinture fleche is a symbol in Quebecois and Acadian cultures as well. My father is Metis but my maternal grandmother is Quebecois (living in western Canada), and at Quebecois winter festivals there is a Bonhomme (de neige) who sports a ceinture fleche. Nonetheless, great article!

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  64. Anonymous says:

    Hi, I was just wondering if someone fully informed could answer a cultural appropriation-related question for me. I own a long yellow skirt with patterning on it in several colors and have been told it looks like a Bollywood skirt. However, I am white, and was wondering if I need to retire the skirt if it is indeed cultural appropriation. Thanks!

  65. ubuntu37 says:

    Thank you so much for this. As a non-Aboriginal person, I have worried about the appropriateness of buying Aboriginal artwork, jewelry, etc. I always felt it was OK, but I’ve never had the words to explain it to others. The Victoria Cross analogy is extremely helpful.

    There are a growing number of people in my social circle who acquire these things from a place of love and respect. Perhaps that’s because I and my social circle are getting older, but I definitely see a difference between 2016 and, say, 1995, when things were bought simply because they were pretty. More often, now, the people who wear or display them have a greater understanding of Aboriginal cultures, and are engaged in ongoing learning.

    Lastly, that Cowichan sweater thing (referenced in an earlier comment about the 2010 Olympics) was *so* offensive. So much of the beauty of those sweaters is in how, and by whom, they are made.

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  68. greg says:

    So is it cultural appropriation when Aboriginal people who are clueless about Aboriginal culture and/or interpret it out of context in order to make money do it? What about when Aboriginal people exploit cultural teachings and or symbols and mass produce them? Is that cultural appropriation or is it always okay to exploit culture if the culture is one you can make even a shaky claim to?

    • You’re asking me if Indigenous people can culturally appropriate their own culture. The answer is no. When it’s your own culture, you can innovate, change it, interpret it, add to it. You can do this as an insider. But yes, doing this sort of thing implies you understand the culture or at least are engaging with it in an exploratory fashion.

      Indigenous peoples can culturally appropriate OTHER Indigenous cultures though…for instance, the Cherokee don’t wear warbonnets. So wearing them, or making them and selling them, is cultural appropriation of Indigenous cultures from whence the warbonnet originates. Some Indigenous artists appropriate west coast designs in their art as another example.

      Is it “okay” that some Indigenous ppl exploit cultural teachings or mass produce restricted items for profit? Not really. But sometimes that’s the only avenue for them to benefit at ALL from their own culture. The causes of this sort of thing should be addressed, not merely the manifestations.

      I’m not going to address “shaky claims”.

  69. Alison says:

    Hi âpihtawikosisân, I really appreciate this piece. I am a white settler woman living in the prairies and I’ve been thinking about buying a pair of Manitobah Mukluks for the coming winter and haven’t yet come to a definitive conclusion, but I’m leaning towards not now. I’ve been reading and talking to friends (some Indigenous, others not). Some are fine with it, for the reasons you suggest – that Mukluks are not ceremonial and are meant for everyday use. Others still find it problematic to see white settler people like me wearing items that are from their cultural tradition worn for fashion. For my friends who still find it problematic. I think it means that out of respect for them, I can’t do it. As much as I think they are beautiful and would be warm during my winter commute. It’s possible that my position could change with more thought and if, as you suggest, I can find a local artisan to purchase them from with their blessing. And of course if we get to place where my friends no longer feel uncomfortable with it. It’s complicated and I do not want to contribute to any further marginalization or worse. My heart is deeply for reconciliation with and restoration for my Indigenous neighbours and friends. Thank you so much for educating me on this issue.

  70. Elizabeth Quinn says:

    I’m a mom of a second grader in Mississippi who was completely clueless about cultural appropriation until about 3 hours ago- so keep that in mind. My daughter’s class just read the book Squanto and is having a Squanto Day in 2 weeks where the kids dress up as Native Americans. I texted my sisters this morning all ‘oh don’t y’all remember how fun Squanto Day was!’ (They’ve been doing it over 30 years and we went to same school my kids do.) The conversation quickly led to cultural appropriation and to this article and now my mind is blown. Until 3 hours ago I was planning to buy her a Native American costume in a bag from Party City and call it a day. Oblivious. I know. I was (am) totally clueless until now. But I want to fix that. Obviously, a larger conversation needs to be had with my daughter’s school about the whole event and I have no faith anything will change in 2 weeks, but I’m not afraid of being the one to start it. It will, no doubt begin with me printing out several posts from your blog. So- thank you for providing this resource for the clueless like me. In the short term I want to know if even this option is ok or still just a watered down version of offensive appropriation. The Choctaw Indian Reservation is near us, home to the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. Would a trip there with my daughter to learn more and purchase items of dress made my Choctaw artisans be an appropriate way to handle this? Or is children dressing in authentic attire made by Choctaw artisans still offensive to Native Americans? Should I not allow her to dress up at all? I can hear just how clueless I sound in asking this- trust me. But as I mentioned this is, sadly, all completely new to me and I am sincerely trying to figure it out so I can educate my children on how to treat Native American culture respectfully so they don’t end up as 35 year old oblivious moms heading to Party City. Thank you!

  71. AryaN IndiaN says:

    Edit: lol, no. “AryaN IndiaN”? I don’t think so. Your slip is showing, I very much doubt you are Native at all, and no, you won’t be spewing ridiculousness here.

  72. Wamblee Ohitika Win says:

    Hi, do you think it is okay for non indigenous people to dance in pow wow or do beadwork? `

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  74. Michelle says:

    Thank you for this post. I’m writing a paper on Ethical Design and one of my points is to try and be culturally aware and sensitive in one’s work. I found this article encouraging and truly appreciated that it was not filled with anger or judgment, but rather a helpful and educational advice. So again, thank you. 🙂

  75. Christine A Carlson says:

    I had planned to make dreamcatchers as part of a 10th grade American Indian Culture unit. I worry this might be cultural appropriation. Does teaching/learning about dreamcatchers and indigenous cultures balance this out?

    • Dreamcatchers are such an overused, stereotypical pan-Indian symbol that it’s honestly better to avoid in my opinion. You’d be better off being more specific; who are the Indigenous peoples in the territory you are in? Teaching children to be aware of specific cultures rather than reinforcing generalities is much more valuable.

      • Christine A Carlson says:

        Thank you so much, and I’m glad I found your blog before I did this unit. I am looking for lessons that inspire my tactile learners, so I’ll keep searching.

  76. L.M. says:

    Hello. I was taught how to make dreamcatchers by an Aboriginal woman three years ago (though we used materials that were not the authentic ones typically used). I’ve been making them ever since and gifting them to people. I’ve developed my own style of making them, at times incorporating charms and symbols that are not part of the Aboriginal culture. I was wondering however if it would be okay for me to begin selling them. I have no intention whatsoever to promote them as authentic Aboriginal art. I was also thinking to add information about the origin of dreamcatchers (e.g., Ojibwe tribe) as well as the meaning behind them. Kindly advise. Thanks

    • No one can stop you, but be prepared to get an earful for doing it. You won’t get permission from me, and frankly, no individual person (First Nations or otherwise) is going to be able to shield you from being criticized for wanting to profit off something that isn’t yours.

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  81. Amanda says:

    I came across this article at the right moment. I recently began working at a new school and was feeling very uneasy when the theme day of Cowboys and Indians was brought up. So many of us are still in the dark about what is and is not ok. We have alot of catching up to do.

  82. Cheryl says:

    Thank you for this wonderful article. I am Canadian as is my husband. We both have ancestral ties to indigenous people but loosely so. We have a band and want to use a thunderbird as a logo to honor the art and legend, as well as the people who honor it. We have been discussing is this is appropriate. What is your opinion? The image we would like to use is creates by a French Canadian artist.

    • The thunderbird is a sacred being for a number of First Nations. My reaction is, no. It would really bother me to see folks using that symbol without strong ties to the cultural understandings of the place thunderbirds hold in our cultures. Especially (and this is at the root of a lot of the resentment felt when people use these symbols) since so many of our spiritual practices and expressions were actually made illegal by Canada for a number of generations.

  83. Isak says:

    Hello! good article! i recently bought a jacket from a brand called golf wang that i really liked. As i got it i realized the motive on the back is a cat that is wearing something that looks very much like a war bonnet, is that considered offensive aswell or is it someone wearing the bonnet itself? I recently discovered the importance of the war bonnet in native american culture and i am just asking for your input. I love the jacket in every way except the motive on the back, whats your opinion? i would like to wear it but i do not want to discredit any culture or offend anyone 🙂

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